Применение исковой давности в семейных отношениях

Для определения исковой давности семейное право опирается на понятия, действующие в гражданском праве, в котором под исковой давностью понимается срок для защиты нарушенного права.

В гражданском праве исковая давность, являясь важным аспектом, применяется часто, и не применяется в исключительных случаях, которые прямо предусмотрены в законодательстве.

При защите прав граждан по результатам брака и семейных отношений действуют другие принципы, исковая давность, как правило, не может быть применена, исключение составляют лишь случаи, которые прямо предусмотрены Семейным кодексом РФ. Так, в случае требования супругов о разделе совместно нажитого имущества после расторжения брака, применяется срок исковой давности в 3 года (п. 7 ст. 38 СК РФ).

Кроме того, при нарушении прав супругов, например, в случае, если на совершение сделки по распоряжению имуществом или по совершению какой-либо другой сделки, где требуется нотариальное удостоверение, согласие на совершение сделки у нотариуса не было оформлено и получено, предусмотрен срок исковой давности в 1 год (п. 3 ст. 35 СК РФ).

Для требования одного из супругов признать брак недействительным, в случаях, если один из супругов скрыл, что он заражен венерической болезнью или ВИЧ инфекцией (п. 4 ст. 169 СК РФ) применяется срок исковой давности в 1 год.

Таким образом, в большинстве случаев не существует определенных сроков для защиты нарушенных прав, исходящих из семейных отношений, и, независимо от времени, когда было нарушены права члена семьи, он вправе требовать защиты своих прав в любое время. Такое правило установлено в связи с продолжительным и личным характером семейных правоотношений.

При обращении в суд с требованием о взыскании алиментов за прошедший период Семейным Кодексом РФ установлен срок исковой давности в 3 года (п. 2 ст. 107 СК РФ), но лишь в том случае, когда прежде, чем обратиться в суд, меры к получению алиментов были приняты, но лицо, обязанное алименты уплачивать, от их уплаты уклонялось, в результате чего алименты получены и не были. Но данный срок не является сроком исковой давности.

Также важно знать, что в семейном праве исчисление исковой давности производят с того времени, когда лицу стало известно или у него была возможность узнать о нарушении своих прав, а также о том, кто действительно является ответчиком по его иску о защите своих прав (ст. 200 ГК РФ). Так, например, при обращении в суд с иском о разделе совместно нажитого имущества исчисление исковой давности производится не с момента расторжения брака, а с того времени, когда одному из супругов стало известно о наличии совместно нажитого имущества, о котором ранее он не знал. Исковая давность также применяется при нарушении алиментных соглашений и брачных договоров.

При оформлении соглашений об уплате алиментов и брачных договоров у сторон нет права включать положения, которые изменяют сроки исковой давности и порядок их исчисления, так как, согласно ст. 198 ГК РФ, сроки исковой давности и порядок их исчисления не могут быть изменены по соглашению сторон.

Требование о защите нарушенного права суд принимает к рассмотрению даже при истечении срока исковой давности, в соответствии со ст. 199 ГК РФ, но применяется исковая давность только в том случае, если до вынесения судебного решения стороной в споре сделано заявление об истечении срока исковой давности и о его применении судом. В таком случае, суд имеет основание вынести решение об отказе в иске.

Течение исковой давности может быть приостановлено, согласно ст. 202 ГК РФ, если существуют обстоятельства, которые являются препятствием для обращения за защитой нарушенных прав. Продолжение срока давности может быть приостановлено, если вышеуказанные обстоятельства появились и существовали в последние шесть месяцев. С момента исчезновения обстоятельства, которое стало основанием для приостановления исковой давности, отсчет срока давности будет продолжен.

В настоящее время распространены способы решения конфликтов с привлечением посредников. В соответствии со ст. 202 ГК РФ отдельным основанием для приостановления исковой давности является применение процедур внесудебного порядка разрешения споров, предусмотренных законами РФ. Также согласно ст. 204 ГК РФ, срок исковой давности приостанавливается с того момента, когда подан иск, и на весь период времени, затраченного на осуществление нарушенных прав; в том случае, когда суд оставил иск без рассмотрения, то течение срока давности будет возобновлено в оставшейся части, а в случаях, когда исковая давность меньше 6 месяцев, ее продолжительность увеличивают до 6 месяцев. Исключением являются случаи, когда действия (или бездействие) истца стали основанием для суда оставить иск без рассмотрения.

В соответствии со ст. 203 ГК РФ, единственным основанием для перерыва срока исковой давности является совершение обязанным лицом действий в связи с признанием долга. В таких случаях, время, которое истекло до совершения обязанным лицом действий в связи с признанием долга, в срок давности не засчитывается. После перерыва срок давности исчисляется заново.

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